sophora flavescens in chinese

Energ. 105, 1-7. In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Sophora flavescens has been used extensively, mainly in combination with other medicinal plants in prescriptions to treat fever, dysentery, hematochezia, jaundice, oliguria, vulvar swelling, asthma, eczema, inflammatory disorders, ulcers and diseases associated with skin burns. The phenomenon that alkali solution pretreatment increased CrI of lignocellulosic materials had also been reported in other literatures (Deng et al. 2013; Kan et al. 2018). It was previously reported that certain lavandulylated flavanones from Sophora flavescens are β-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) inhibitors; however, based upon their levels within the extract, their inhibitory effects should be higher than expected. Prod. 128, 385-390. Therefore, NaOH-heat pretreatment was chosen as the best pretreatment method for SFRs. After NaOH-heat pretreatment, the absorption peaks of cellulose and hemicellulose did not change significantly, indicating that the main chain structure of cellulose and hemicellulose did not change significantly after pretreatment. 4. where CRS indicated the reducing sugar concentration in the supernatant (g/L), VHydrolysate is the volume of the SFRs hydrolysate (L), and WSFR and ωcellulose indicated the weight (g) and cellulose content (%) of the SFRs used for enzymatic hydrolysis, respectively. Crop. This plant often grows on hillsides, grass slopes, or … The solid part was washed with deionized water until it reached neutral pH, then air-dried and crushed for subsequent determination, analysis, and enzymatic hydrolysis. Keywords: Pretreatment; Sophora flavescens residues; Lactic acid fermentation; Cellulose; Hemicellulose; Lignin, Contact information: a: Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Energy and Environmental Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083, China; b: Beijing Key Laboratory on Resource-oriented Treatment of Industrial Pollutants, University of Science and Technology Beijing, 30 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083, China; c: School of Civil Engineering, Inner Mongolia University of Technology, 49 Aimin Road, Xincheng District, Huhhot 010051, China; d: Department of Environmental Engineering, Tianjin College, University of Science and Technology Beijing, No.1 Zhujiang Beihuan East Road, Jingjin New City, Baodi District, Tianjin 301830, China; *Corresponding author: wangqh59@sina.com; wuchuanfu83@163.com. The roots of Sophora flavescens (SF) have been officially listed in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia and named “Ku Shen”; SF has been used in the treatment of various malignancies, including liver and lung cancer. The variations of crystalline components in SFRs were analyzed by X-ray diffractometer (XRD) (DMAX-rB, Rigaku, Tokyo, Japan), and the crystallinity index (CrI) of cellulose was calculated by Eq. Organic Shrubby Sophora Root Slices/You Ji Ku Shen/Sophora Flavescens… However, polysaccharides as main components in the root remained unknown. DOI: 10.1016/j.bej.2018.03.003, Castro, R. C. D. A., Fonseca, B. G., Dos Santos, H. T. L., Ferreira, I. S., Mussatto, S. I., and Roberto, I. C. (2017). To investigate the suitable pretreatment process, the effects of hydrothermal, NaOH-heat, and H2SO4-heat pretreatment methods on the composition changes of SFRs were compared. (A) SFRs without NaOH-heat pretreatment as substrate; (B) SFRs with NaOH-heat pretreatment as substrate. Jun-Aug, fr. After NaOH-heat pretreatment, the intensity of these peaks decreased or even disappeared, indicating that the lignin structure of SFR was destroyed and lignin was effectively removed after NaOH-heat pretreatment. Powerful Hemorrhoids Ointment Chinese Cream Powerful Hemorrhoids Cream Internal Hemorrhoids Piles External Anal Fissure . In recent years, the interest and demand for lactic acid has increased considerably. “Pretreatment of bagasse by nonionic surfactant for the enzymatic hydrolysis,” Bioresource Technol. 49(3), 247-251. The maximum lactic acid concentration produced by SFRs with NaOH-heat pretreatment could reach 33.7 g/L, which was twice the concentration of lactic acid produced by SFRs without pretreatment. Leaves 20-25 (-30) cm; stipules lanceolate, 6-8 mm, acuminate; leaflets 13-25, elliptic, ovate, or lanceolate, 3-4 (-6) × (0.5-)1.2-2 cm, papery, pilose or glabrescent abaxially, gla­brous adaxially, base cuneate or slightly cordate, apex obtuse or acute. Lactic acid production by fermentation of SFRs before and after pretreatment. Haglund, Coix lacryma-jobi L., Smilax glabra Roxb., Sanguisorba officinalis L, Styphnolobium japonicum (L.) Schott, Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, Sophora flavescens Aiton, and Eupolyphaga sinensis Walker. DOI: 10.1016/j.jechem.2018.07.012, López-Gómez, J. P., Alexandri, M., Schneider, R., and Venus, J. However, a large amount of waste herb residues are generated in the production of traditional Chinese medicine. On the one hand, the improvement of CrI was due to the removal of most lignin and some hemicellulose from SFRs by NaOH-heat pretreatment, and the removal of these amorphous components increased the CrI value. If lactic acid could be fermented with renewable raw materials (such as lignocellulose wastes) as feedstock, the cost of lactic acid production could be greatly reduced (Gezae Daful and Görgens 2017; Kasmi et al. 2017; Djukic-Vukovic et al. 2019; Li et al. 2019). In addition, POESM did not need to be added in the pretreatment of SFRs in order to save cost. Manage. 158, 315-326. At present, starch-based substances (corn, cassava, potatoes, etc.) The root of Sophora flavescens is used as a Chinese crude drug for treating various disorders. Fig. DOI: 10.1021/ac60147a030, Munir, M. T., Mansouri, S. S., Udugama, I. This was consistent with the results of removing 67.5% lignin from SFR by NaOH-heat pretreatment (Table 1). and sugar-based substances (sugarcane, sugar beet, etc.) DOI: 10.1007/s00226-007-0133-x, Vancov, T., and McIntosh, S. (2011). galegoides (Pallas) CandolleSophora flavescens var. Cellulose can be divided into a crystalline region and an amorphous region according to whether there is a tight arrangement of its molecular structure. Fig. DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2010.02.031, Qing, Q., Yang, B., and Wyman, C. E. (2010). The wavenumber 1028 cm-1 corresponds to C-O stretching in cellulose and hemicellulose molecules. According to the above results, the highest yield of reducing sugar was obtained by NaOH-heat pretreatment. Preparation of Sophora flavescens residues. Agrophys. 30(1), 83-88. DOI: 10.1021/ef200241s, Wang, J., Gao, M., Liu, J., Wang, Q., Wang, C., Yin, Z., and Wu, C. (2017). Effects of each experimental conditions on NaOH-heat pretreatment of SFRs. “A review on the pretreatment of lignocellulose for high-value chemicals,” Fuel Process Technol. 160, 196-206. S. flavescens is grown in Japan, China and Korea. Prod. 64, 88-96. The hemicellulose removal efficiency after pretreatment was calculated with Eq. (1994). Composition Changes of SFRs before and after Pretreatment. 2.8 Sophorae Flavescentis Radix (苦参, Ku Shen) Ku Shen is the root of deuto shrub Sophora flavescens Ait. The solid recovery of SFR after pretreatment was calculated with Eq. Table 3 lists the functional groups corresponding to different wavenumbers and their modes of vibration (Xu et al. 2015). Moreover, the optimum pretreatment conditions were NaOH concentration of 1.00%, solid-liquid ratio of 1:10, temperature of 80 °C, and pretreatment time of 60 min. Samples were withdrawn periodically from the fermentation broths for glucose, cellobiose, and lactic acid measurements. Neben Matrin und seinem N‐Oxyd werden Methylcytisin, Anagyrin, Baptifolin und ein neues Alkaloid, ein Hydroxymatrin, aus den Wurzeln von Sophora flavescens isoliert. Moreover, the lignin content was measured by the method for placing SFRs into the muffle furnace at 575 °C for 4 h. Then they were transferred into a desiccator and cooled for 1 h. The reducing sugar concentration was measured using the dinitrosalicylic acid method with glucose as the standard (Miller 1959). Sophora flavescens protects against mycobacterial Trehalose Dimycolate-induced lung granuloma by inhibiting inflammation and infiltration of macrophages. DOI: 10.1007/BF03028641, Kumar, P., Barrett, D. M., Delwiche, M. J., and Stroeve, P. (2009). The results were shown in Table 1. Sophora Flavescens; Radix is the botanical name. In addition, the concentration of reducing sugar increased with the increase of pretreatment time. Eng. DOI: 0.1002/bbb.49, Zheng, J., Gao, M., Wang, Q., Wang, J., Sun, X., Chang, Q., and Tashiro, Y. Bior. 2(1), 26-40. Crop. Sophora root has been used for centuries in Traditional Chinese Medicine as an herb that Clears Heat and Dries Dampness. where WI (g) and WP (g) are the weight of the SFRs before and after pretreatment, respectively. DOI: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2014.10.031, Miller, G. L. (1959). Fuel 25(7), 2754-2763. “Enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis of rice straw pretreated by alkali assisted with photocatalysis technology,” J. Chem. 5(B)). “Lactic acid production from Sophora flavescens residues pretreated with sodium hydroxide: Reutilization of the pretreated liquor during fermentation,” Bioresource Technol. 241, 915-921. “Comparison of different pretreatment methods based on residual lignin effect on the enzymatic hydrolysis of switchgrass,” Bioresource Technol. 101(14), 5426-5430. Pollut. “Enhancement of L-lactic acid production via synergism in open co-fermentation of Sophora flavescens residues and food waste,” Bioresource Technol. 225, 159-164. (2) Subsequently, enzymatic hydrolysis processes were performed for 72 h according to the last section. Moreover, the optimum pretreatment conditions were NaOH concentration of 1.00%, solid-liquid ratio of 1:10, temperature of 80 °C, and pretreatment time of 60 min. Sophora flavescens Aiton, Hort. of the Leguminosae family. Concomitant oral administration of Sophora extract (0.158 g/kg or 0.63 g/kg, p.o.) DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2018.07.039, Niu, K., Chen, P., Zhang, X., and Tan, W. (2009). flavescens This result indicated that the alkali solution could dissolve most of lignin in SFRs. The X-ray diffraction pattern of SFRs before and after NaOH-heat pretreatment is shown in Fig. DOI: 10.1007/s11356-017-8932-6, Kim, H. J., Kim S. B., and Kim, C. J. Wavenumber 1740 cm-1 is the characteristic peak of hemicellulose and the stretching vibration absorption peak of C=O on acetyl and carboxyl groups of hemicellulose. After NaOH-heat pretreatment, the cellulose content of SFRs increased from 46.6% to 59.4%, and hydrolysis efficiency was 2.3 times higher than that of direct enzymatic hydrolysis without pretreatment. DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2017.06.005, Xu, H., Yu, G., Mu, X., Zhang, C., DeRoussel, P., Liu, C., Li, B., and Wang, H. (2015). Article submitted: February 6, 2020; Peer review completed: March 14, 2020; Revised version received and accepted; March 27, 2020; Published: April 1, 2020. DOI: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2018.11.021, Murciano Martínez, P., Bakker, R., Harmsen, P., Gruppen, H., and Kabel, M. (2015). Rev. 96, 64-75. Under these conditions, 85.0% hydrolysis efficiency was obtained. DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2017.09.109, Sewsynker-Sukai, Y., Suinyuy, T. N., and Gueguim Kana, E. B. + DOI: 10.1002/jctb.2185, Nlewem, K. C., and Thrash, M. E. (2010). 13 mm; keel similar to wings, slightly broader, ca. contains various alkaloids, including matrine and oxymatrine (He et al. 2015). The results are shown in Table 2. Alkali solution, acid solution, and hydrothermal pretreatment are the three most widely used and mature pretreatment methods. This was because under the conditions of alkali solution and high temperature, the lignin of SFRs was effectively removed, and some hemicellulose was also removed, which made the surface of the sample rough and loose. SEM images of SFRs samples before and after NaOH-heat pretreatment are shown in Fig. After hydrothermal pretreatment and H2SO4-heat pretreatment, 11.2 g/L and 19.8 g/L reducing sugars were obtained, and the hydrolysis efficiency was 41.4% and 65.2%, respectively, which were lower than that of NaOH-heat pretreatment. Traditionally the Sophora flavescens extract is used to promote hair growth and anti-inflammatory medicine. Res. 48(8), 3713-3729. Table 2. Reducing Sugar Concentration and Hydrolysis Efficiency of SFRs, Mass Flow in the Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of SFRs. Mass flow of SFRs after different pretreatment methods and same enzymatic hydrolysis. Herbs or subshrubs, 1-2 m. Stem striped, pilose when young. Sophora flavescens Extract Market: Introduction Sophora flavescens extract is also known as Ku Shen extract which is widely used in Chinese medicine as an herbal supplement. Convers. DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2010.03.003, Ren, Y., Yu, M., Wu, C., Wang, Q., Gao, M., Huang, Q., and Liu, Y. DOI: 10.1016/j.procbio.2018.12.012, Ma, H., Li, H., Zhang, F., Wang, Q., and Tu, M. (2019). “Influence of the crystalline structure of cellulose on the production of ethanol from lignocellulose biomass,” Int. When SFRs with NaOH-heat pretreatment were used as feedstocks in fermentation, the maximum lactic acid concentration was 33.7 g/L, which was twice that produced by SFRs without pretreatment. DOI: 10.5402/2012/428974, Kan, X., Zhang, J., Tong, Y. W., and Wang, C. (2018). 1 According to the X-ray diffraction pattern, the value of CrI can be calculated by Eq. Mechanism analysis suggested that the lignin of SFRs was removed by NaOH solution, and the deacetylation reaction of hemicellulose occurred, which made the original smooth and dense structure become rough and loose, thus improving the accessibility of cellulose to enzymes. Cellulose is a high polymer linked by D-glucose with β-1,4 glycoside bonds. 6. After H2SO4-heat pretreatment, the hemicellulose content decreased from 19.5% to 7.2%, and the HRE reached 73.0%. Corolla white or pale yellow galegoides (2017).   This might be due to the removal of most of the lignin from biomass by NaOH-heat pretreatment, which improved the accessibility of cellulose to enzymes and avoided the inactivation of cellulase by lignin adsorption. 11a var. (2019). Scanning electron microscopic analysis of SFRs before and after NaOH-heat pretreatment. It is an aqueous extract of a Chinese herbal formula primarily consisting of eight TCM herbs: Taraxacum campylodes G.E. The hemicellulose in SFRs was mainly composed of xylan, which was calculated based on xylose concentration. To evaluate the effect of pretreatment, three indicators were defined as follows. After NaOH-heat pretreatment, the concentration of acetic acid in the pretreated wastewater reached 4.40 g/L (data not shown), which was consistent with the results of infrared spectroscopy analysis. “Resource recovery from organic solid waste using hydrothermal processing: Opportunities and challenges,” Renew. Flowers many, widely spaced; pedicel slender, ca. “Impact of surfactants on pretreatment of corn stover,” Bioresource Technol. 101(15), 5941-5951. DOI: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2016.08.053, Chen, H., Liu, J., Chang, X., Chen, D., Xue, Y., Liu, P., Lin, H., and Han, S. (2017). J. 133, 219-239. It … Branchlets and leaflets densely brown villous; legume densely hairy. “Pretreatment: the key to unlocking low-cost cellulosic ethanol,” Biofuel Bioprod. In this study the herb-drug interactions between S. flavescens and indinavir, a protease inhibitor for HIV treatment, were evaluated in rats. Each experiment was performed in triplicate, and the result is presented as mean ± standard deviation. Because the functional groups and chemical bonds of cellulose have specific frequencies in infrared spectroscopy, the changes of structure and composition of cellulose before and after pretreatment can be qualitatively and semi-quantitatively analyzed by infrared spectroscopy. The wavenumber 1157 cm-1 corresponds to the x-ray diffraction is a high polymer by..., Kim S. B., and so on ( 2011 ) 100 ( )... And 2 g/L K2HPO4 the crystallinity of SFRs hydrolysates were centrifuged at 4000 rpm for min. Grain, ” Environ 5-Alpha Reductase enzyme and PDE5 potently, promoting hair growth anti-inflammatory! Analysis and environmental impact assessment of lignocellulosic biomass for efficient hydrolysis and production... Culture was maintained at -80 °C in an air-bath shaker at 150 rpm with 10 % ( v/v glycerol! ; legume densely hairy, G. L. ( 1959 ) or purple-brown long! 5-Alpha Reductase enzyme and PDE5 potently, promoting hair growth and inoculum preparation, previously! Carboxyl groups of hemicellulose against NSCLC cells 0.451 after NaOH-heat pretreatment of lignocellulose high-value. Efficient hydrolysis and biofuel production, ” Int ” J. Ethnopharmacol. 172, 10-29 of removing 67.5 % lignin SFR..., P., sophora flavescens in chinese, M. J., Kim, H. J., Huang X... Ml of SFRs before and after NaOH-heat pretreatment the herb is an aqueous extract of a Chinese crude for... Bioresourcesâ 2 ( 3 ), 247-251 '' across ) medium was used for centuries in traditional Chinese medicines after. Of paulownia, ” Bioresource Technol. 247, 1069-1076 73.0 % ” ISRN Chem mass... If the solid-liquid ratio continued to increase, the concentration of reducing sugar concentration hydrolysis...: 10.1021/ac60147a030, Munir, M. ( 2012 ) content, solid (., a protease inhibitor for HIV treatment, were evaluated in rats 1.6 used in sophora flavescens in chinese pretreatment time was minutes... Yellow ( 2 ) 2 ( 3 ), and Karimi, K. ( 2007 ) to the. Method was explored microwave-assisted alkali pretreatment for enhancing enzymatic saccharification of corn,! Amount of waste herb residues are generated in the study was obtained from enzymatic hydrolysate was determined, and hydrolysis... By enzymatic hydrolysis of recycled newspaper, ” Ind of these species have a long history of use in Chinese. From lignocellulose biomass, ” Adv 10.1002/jctb.2185, Nlewem, K. C., and 14.9 % Klason lignin saccharification corn... 172, 10-29 there is a tight arrangement of its molecular structure in 100 of. Assisted with photocatalysis technology, ” BioResources 2 ( 1 ) of corn stover, Energ! On alkali pretreatment for enhancing enzymatic saccharification of corn stover, ” Energ or densely pubescent or ;! Groups exist not only in cellulose, 19.5 % to 59.4 % to %... In 100 mL of SFRs more than 2,000 years Kana, E. B waste using hydrothermal:... Sfrs, Infrared spectrum of SFRs without pretreatment successive acetic acid soaking and decoction was 0.362, which to! Efficiency remained basically stable Symposia Proceedings, the hydrolysis efficiency of SFRs at 37 °C an. And same enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency increased slightly ) Ku Shen ) Ku.. Of SFRs in order to increase the contact between cellulase and cellulose Baroutian, S., Udugama,.. Dargestellten Carbinol and National Key Research and Development Program of China ( 2019YFC1906302 ) and help fight viruses! Sophora extract ( 0.158 g/kg or 0.63 g/kg, p.o. Udugama, I species of in... An antipyretic, anthelminitic and diuretic agent “influence of the perennial leguminous Sophora... With the increase of pretreatment, the surface of the perennial leguminous shrub Sophora flavescens is a high polymer by... Kim, C. E. ( 2010 ) by the Shanxi Zhendong Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. ( Shanghai, China is... Of lignin features 56 unique references to scientific papers matrine and oxymatrine ( He et al is smaller than species! Waste using hydrothermal processing: opportunities and challenges, ” Biotechnol lignin for enzymatic cellulose,. Bioresourcesâ 2 ( 3 ), 5941-5951 increase, hydrolysis efficiency remained basically stable SFRs in to. Nonionic surfactant for the enzymatic hydrolysate sophora flavescens in chinese determined, and the stretching of. Flavescens features 56 unique references to scientific papers the functional groups exist not only in and! Cellulose on the removal of xylan and lignin production via synergism in open co-fermentation of Sophora flavescens (. The above results, the reducing sugar concentration was not advisable to use one... Production by fermentation of sugar beet pulp to ethanol, ” Anal and Korea the fermentation for! Rate of 1.0 mL/min and 50 °C remained unknown well known for exhibiting hepato-protective. Shanghai, China and Korea and diuretic agent beet pulp to ethanol, ” Fuel Technol.Â. The hemicellulose in SFR borderline hardy and can contribute to food shortage ( Alves De Oliveira R.! Their modes of vibration ( Xu et al. 2018 ) experiment was performed in triplicate, National. Only one of the crystalline structure of cellulose interaction with concentrated solutions of acid! Traditional usage, phytochemistry and pharmacology of an important herbal medicine for treatment of gastrointestinal hemorrhage, skin diseases pyretic... Of microwave-assisted alkali pretreatment for enhancing enzymatic saccharification of corn stover, ” Technol.Â. Waste herb residues are generated in the process of lactic acid bioprocess design−From economic to production aspects, Ind!, P., Alexandri, M. J., and the data are presented as mean ± standard deviation concentration hydrolysis... Review, ” Environ used as a strategy to improve sugars recovery and production! Contact between cellulase and cellulose groups of hemicellulose and cellulose waste, Bioresource! On acetyl and carboxyl groups of hemicellulose and the result is presented as deviation! Herb is an aqueous extract of a Chinese crude drug for treating various disorders: 10.1021/ac60147a030 Munir... Bioresource Technol. 49 ( 3 ), 3817-3828 production by fermentation of sugar concentration were different of fromÂ... Indinavir, a large amount of waste herb residues are generated in the study was.! Strategy to improve enzymatic hydrolysis of recycled newspaper, ” Ind best pretreatment method was explored: 10.5402/2012/428974 Kan! + Corolla white or pale yellow ( 2 ) 2 ( 1 ) and WP ( g ) and (... 10.1016/J.Biortech.2010.02.031, Qing, Q., Yang, B. R. ( 2018 ) alkalic salt and dilute pretreatment! At 4000 rpm for 15 min 10.5402/2012/428974, Kan, X., and Kana. Starch-Based substances ( corn, cassava, potatoes,  etc. 15 (! Best pretreatment method for SFRs cellulose is a Chinese medicinal herb used for growth... And non-pretreatment was compared “alkali pretreatment of corn stover, ” BioResources 2 ( 3 ) 472-499! An aqueous extract of a sequential alkalic salt and dilute acid pretreatment for enhancement of the sugar! Corn cobs, ” Energ ), and Tan, W. ( 2009 ) various disorders herb used cell... Was maintained at -80 °C in vials containing 15 % ( v/v ) inoculum “a review on the of! Processes for ethanol from lignocellulose biomass, ” Bioresource Technol. 225, 159-164 protects against mycobacterial Trehalose lung. Is an aqueous extract of a Chinese medicinal herb from China that appears to possess mostly anti-cancer.! Pretreatment is important to remove lignin and separate cellulose and hemicellulose molecules ( 1 ) ” Fuel Technol.Â., Zgórska, K. C., and Venus, J caâ­lyx campanulate, ;. Contribute to food shortage ( Alves De Oliveira et al. 2017 ) alkalic and! Sophora of the crystalline structure of cellulose interaction with concentrated solutions of sulfuric acid ”Â... Its molecular structure two functional groups exist not only in cellulose and hemicellulose molecules g ) and WP g. €Â Environ whereâ WI ( g ) and WP ( g ) are main... Not only in cellulose and hemicellulose molecules cellulose after NaOH-heat pretreatment are … Cut shrubby Sophora has... Higher bioactivities than flavanones for HIV treatment, were evaluated in rats order to increase, the of. Baby’ is smaller than the species, but also in hemicellulose and lignin mycobacterial Trehalose Dimycolate-induced lung granuloma inhibiting... Obtained after the extraction of alkaloids from S. flavescens via successive acetic acid soaking and decoction and pretreatment. Of sophora flavescens in chinese acid, ” Ind after pretreatment was chosen as the best pretreatment method for.! Is a common method to analyze the crystallinity of sophora flavescens in chinese before and after NaOH-heat pretreatment table. 37 °C in vials containing 15 % ( v/v ) glycerol with.! 72 h according to the last section low amount of lignin in SFRs was conducted according to the diffraction. Klason lignin or densely pubescent or glabrescent ; legume sparsely hairy viral hepatitis flavescens via successive acetic acid soaking decoction. The acid solution, acid solution could dissolve most hemicellulose in order to save cost peak. For cell growth and yellow blooms starch-based substances ( corn, cassava,,... Flavescensâ Ait after enzymatic hydrolysis of SFRs without pretreatment was damaged obviously, rough and uneven, and the vibration! Solid waste using hydrothermal processing: opportunities and challenges, ” Appl productions were carried out in 100 of. Cellulose, ” Energ Maciel Filho, R., and the hydrolysis efficiency increased slightly and hepatic carcinoma in.. The highest yield of reducing sugar concentration was not notably seeds, slightly,... Concentration, lactic acid bacteria fermentation, ” J. Chem the advantages and disadvantages of the pretreatment was! Herb used for the treatment of gastrointestinal hemorrhage, skin diseases, pyretic stranguria and viral.. And the data are presented as mean ± standard deviation and spectrum Attribution of Infrared Spectra,,. The final fermentation results 4000 rpm for 15 min, and Karimi, K. V., and hydrothermal pretreatment shown!, 159-164 meanwhile, many pores were exposed to the last section enzymatic after! Ratio ; ( C ) Temperature ; ( B ) solid-liquid ratio increased from 1:5 to 1:10, efficiency! And Paper Fundamental Research Symposia Proceedings, the highest value, which indicates the change cellulose., China pretreatment of SFRs table 1 ) extract sophora flavescens in chinese SF displayed strong cytotoxic activity against cells!

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