basic concepts of statistics notes

Introduction 2. Descriptive statistics is basically the analysis of data that helps to describe, show or summarize data in a meaningful way. Median is used over the mean since it is more robust to outlier values. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. discrete. Basic Probability Theory (Robert B. Ash, Department of Mathematics, University of Illinois) Head First Statistics by Griffiths. students is {53.1, 59.4, 62A, 77.8, 64.4} and one of the member of set is 77.8 of Commerce & Management Biyani Girls College, Jaipur . of the probability theory to understand and quantify this notion. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. (83 Documents), MA 211 - Calculus and Analytic Geometry II The population does not always have to be people. Some Basic concepts Statistics is a field of study concerned with 1- collection, organization, summarization and analysis of data. A simplified view of experimental research is as follows: B = Second coin toss results in an HH. Sample statistics include the . MA120 Basic Concepts of Statistics syllabus, MA 208 - Discrete Mathematics For example:- if the weights of five students are measured correct to the nearest 0.1 kg are found to Favourable Outcome: The outcome in which we are interested is known as a favorable outcome. This is because one sample does not perfectly represent the population, and different samples may give different results. Discrete and continuous data Introductory statistics dealt with three main areas: descriptive statistics, probability, and inference. 3 Distinguish between descriptive and inferential statistics. They derive as a result of the process of measuring, counting and/or observing. Descriptive statistics involves tables, charts, and presentation of summary characteristics of the data, which include concepts such as the mean, median or standard deviation. Announcements We will finish the material in the first lecture notes at a later point in the semester. The purpose of this review is to summarize the basic statistical concepts. The Prerequisites Checklist page on the Department of Statistics website lists a number of courses that require a foundation of basic statistical concepts as a prerequisite. Example A box contains two coins, a regular coin and one fake two-headed coin (P(H)=1P(H)=1). All of the graduate courses in the Master of Applied Statistics program heavily rely on these concepts and procedures. Lecture 2: Basic Concepts of Statistical Decision Theory Lecturer: Jiantao Jiao, Tsachy Weissman Scribe: John Miller and Aran Nayebi In this lecture1, we will introduce some of the basic concepts of statistical decision theory, which will play crucial roles throughout the course. we already know whether a regular coin is selected or not, the event A and B becomes independent … (b) Draw the histogram. In this post, we will be discussing mean, median, mode concepts and their solved examples which is a frequently asked topic in XAT and SNAP examination. The word “Statistics” appears to have been derived from the Latin word Status or the Italian word Median is used over the mean since it is more robust to outlier values. Textbook ref- If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. Sample Space (S)? Review of Basic Statistical Concepts. Comparing Two Means/Review of Basic Concepts of Statistical Inference Lecture Notes II Statistics 112, Fall 2002. Statista, both meaning a “manner of standing” or “position” Sample and sampling: A portion of the population used for statistical analysis. Statisticians try to interpret and communicate the results to others. The third quartile is the 75th percentile; i.e 75% of the points in the data fall below that value. (11 Documents), MA 150 - Precalculus Mathematics This is the post on the topic of the Bsc Statistics Notes pdf - 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th Year Notes. Introductory statistics dealt with three main areas: descriptive statistics, probability, and inference. The chapter reviews the differences between nonexperimental and experimental research and the differences between descriptive and inferential analyses. The sample space is the collection or totality of all possible outcomes of a Linear Regression as a Statistical Model 5. Descriptive statistics is encountered daily in the news media. (Explanatory vari- Note Set 1: Review of Basic Concepts in Probability Padhraic Smyth, Department of Computer Science University of California, Irvine January 2019 This set of notes is intended as a brief refresher on probability. Data may relate to an activity of our interest, a phenomenon, or a problem situation under study. the numbers shown on the two dice) R andom Experiment A random experiment is a physical situation whose outcome cannot be predicted until it is observed. Basic Concepts for Biostatistics. Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. Sampling is the process by which numerical values will be selected from the population. Descriptive statistics explain the basic concepts used to describe data. Next What Are Statistics. 1. Intermediate mathematical statistics Book by G. P. Beaumont. All such concepts and conventions would be dealt with detail in subsequent lessons. Topic: Basic Concepts of Statistics Chapter 3: The basic concepts of probability Experiment: a measurement process that produces quantifiable results (e.g. (2140706) Probability is concerned with the outcome of tri-als.? A Basic Review of Statistics Definitions and Concepts . Previous A basic box plot. The following descriptions of common terms and concepts refer to a hypothesis test in which the means of two populations […] For more content related to this post you can click on labels link. the numbers shown on the two dice) Atmiya Institute of Technology & Science – General Department Page 1 Quiz: Introduction to Statistics Previous Probability. Since Statistics involves the collection and interpretation of data, we must first know how to understand, display and summarise large amounts of quantitative information, before undertaking a more sophisticated analysis. All the elements we will perform in the study are called population. 1.1 Statistics in Business. (a) Construct the relative and the cumulative relative frequency distribution tables. Author: Lisa Sullivan, PhD, Professor of Biostatistics, Boston University School of Public Health . (11 Documents). Approaches to Line Fitting 3. 2- drawing of inferences about a body of data when only a part of the data is observed. The post is tagged and categorized under in bsc notes, bsc statistics, Education News, Notes Tags. 1.2 Basic statistical concepts. It enables us to check the body for equilibrium. Chapter 3: The basic concepts of probability Experiment: a measurement process that produces quantifiable results (e.g. Introduction to the Theory of Statistics by Alexander M Mood Maths Chapter-wise Notes for Engineering exams Basic Concepts of Statistics - Lecture Notes 1. Given the frequency distribution below. Deciles Statistics. 1. Statistical data are the basic raw material of statistics. What are the five important characteristics of data? The distinction between a population together with its parameters and a sample together with its statistics is a fundamental concept in inferential statistics. Course Hero is not sponsored or endorsed by any college or university. On the other hand, emphasis is given to the notion of a random variable and, in that context, the sample space. Easy notes that contain all the important questions. The third quartile is the 75th percentile; i.e 75% of the points in the data fall below that value. I choose a coin at random and toss it twice. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. The line in the middle is the median value of the data. Even with careful sampling methods, our conclusions are still educated guesses. Concept of Particles and Free Body Diagram Why FBD diagrams are used during the analysis? Tutorial 1: Review of Basic Statistics While we assume that readers will have had at least one prior course in statistics, it may be helpful for some to have a review of some basic concepts, if only to familiarize themselves with the notation that will be used in the current book.  This includes design issues as well. Multiple Linear Regression and Matrix Formulation Table of contents 1. An Introduction to Basic Statistics and Probability Shenek Heyward ... An Introduction to Basic Statistics and Probability – p. 1/40. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. be 53.1 kg, 59.4 kg, 62.1 kg, 72.8 kg and 64.4 kg, then the set of weights in kilograms for these 3 min read. CONTENTs Introduction Chapter 1 Basic Concepts in Statistics 1.1 Statistical Concepts 2 1.2 Variables and Type of Data 5 1.3 Sampling Techniques 12 1.4 Observational and Experimental Studies 17 Chapter 2 Organizing and Graphing Data 2.1 Raw Data 32 2.2 Organizing and Graphing Qualitative Data 33 2.3 Organizing and Graphing Quantitative Data 47 Chapter 3 Numerical Descriptive Measures Quant Study Notes. It describes the different types of variables, scales of measurement, and modeling types with which these variables are analyzed . (c) Find, (Given the probability distribution below. 360 Technology 3 weeks ago . They derive as a result of the process of measuring, counting and/or observing. (a) Find P(X = 1). Example: Uncovering data fakers The rst part of the book deals with descriptive statistics and provides prob-ability concepts that are required for the interpretation of statistical inference. Basic Statistical Concepts. Sampling is the process by which numerical values will be selected from the population. statistics. (b) By measurement - for example, the heights of a group of people. Let A = First coin toss results in an HH. Text Book : Basic Concepts and Methodology for This is major field for scholars interested in Data Science, Economics, Psychology, Machine Learning, Sports analytics and just about any other field. Dot Plot. Tips & Tricks 5 BASIC STATISTICS CONCEPTS EVERY DATA SCIENTIST NEEDS TO KNOW! The purpose of this review is to summarize the basic statistical concepts. Sir Ronald Fisher was a British statistician and biologist who was known for his contributions to experimental design and population genetics. Statistical techniques have been widely used in many diverse area of scientific investigation. Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. 4 Obtain types of Variables. The most fundamental branch of statistics is descrip- tive statistics,that is, statistics used to summarize or describe a set of observations. Measured data can have any value within certain limits are called continuous. could you explain this to me please, what are the 5? Crash Course on Basic Statistics Marina Wahl, marina.w4hl@gmail.com University of New York at Stony Brook November 6, 2013 5 BASIC STATISTICS CONCEPTS EVERY DATA SCIENTIST NEEDS TO KNOW! business entity, going concern concept, money measurement concept, cost concept, dual aspect concept, accounting period concept, matching concept, realization concept and conventions of conservatism, disclosure, consistency, etc. For example:- the number of stamps sold by a post office in equal period of time. What is the presumption of classical probability? Statistical data, Now I’m going to explain the basic concepts of statistics that we need before solving any problem, with simple examples, as well as the types of variables that exist.. To begin to understand statistical exercises, you need to know perfectly these basic statistical concepts and know at … Notes; Generating Random Numbers on the TI-82; Sampling Lab designed to expose the student to each of the five types of sampling; Chapter 2. If the trial consists of ipping a coin twice, the 1 Motivation The process of inductive inference consists of 1. that a battery lasts is measured and can have any value between certain limits. Introduction 2. Examples include; ALL small businesses, ALL workers currently employed for Mcdonalds. mean, LECTURE NOTES #1 Reading assignment Review MD chs 1&2 or G chs 1-5.  Some Statistical Terms The branch of statistics used to interpret or draw inferences about a set of observations is fittingly referred to as inferential statistics. computer science. Questions which t this setting: (i) Which academic department in the sciences gives out the lowest average grades? Class 10 Mathematics Notes - Chapter 6 - Basic Statistics - Exercise 6.3. Statistical data, Data collection. What are the pros and cons of using the modeas your measure of central tendency? Data collection - Observation. Basic Concepts of Statistics Notes. Trials refers to an event whose outcome is un-known. (b) Calculate the expected value X P(X) 0 0.08 1 2 0.42 3 0.38. 2 Understand the definition of basic Statistical concepts. Basic Concepts In StatisticsEquations and Inequalities CHAPTERCHAPTER 1 1 Objectives 1 Understand the role of statistics in real life. Aim- to extract the best possible information from data and … Concept based material Business Statistics BBA –lll Sem Dr. Archana Dusad Assistant Professor Deptt. Next What Are Statistics. Set, population, sample, Frequency and relative frequency , Data analysis, Presentation of Group data, Graphical Representation of Grouped Data. See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. As a student reading these notes you will likely have seen (in other classes) most or all of the ideas discussed below. By considering the FBD, we can clearly define the exact system of forces which we must use in the investigation of any constrained body. Statistics is a study of data: describing properties of data (descriptive statistics) and drawing conclusions about a population based on information in a sample (inferential statistics). This material includes a set of instructional modules, each containing a set of slide images accompanied by a video clip version of the associated lecture. Trials are also called experiments or observa-tions (multiple trials).? Quiz: Introduction to Statistics Previous Probability. 13. attempts to prove basic theorems and a Balls and Urns type of discussion. 6. Some Basic concepts Statistics is a field of study concerned with 1- collection, organization, summarization and analysis of data. Sample and sampling: A portion of the population used for statistical analysis. Statistics are tools Statistics – singular means figures plural - body of knowledge German  statastik political state Italian  statista statesman C = Coin 1 (regular) has been selected. Basic Statistical Concepts. Easy notes that contain all the important questions. 6 Statistics The science of collecting, monitoring, analyzing, summarizing, and interpreting data. Statisticians try to interpret and communicate the results to others. Data collection - Questionaire Designing. Introductory Statistics Notes Jamie DeCoster Department of Psychology University of Alabama 348 Gordon Palmer Hall Box 870348 Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0348 Phone: (205) 348-4431 Fax: (205) 348-8648 August 1, 1998 These were compiled from Jamie DeCoster’s introductory statistics class at Purdue University. For example:- the time The first quartile is essentially the 25th percentile; i.e 25% of the points in the data fall below that value. Basic Biostatistics Concepts and Tools. Goals for Lecture Notes #1 Review basic statistical concepts { two sample t test { role of statistical assumptions { hypothesis testing { descriptive statistics { exploratory data analysis { remedial measures Introduce SPSS and R syntax 1These lecture notes have bene ted from feedback given by teaching assistants and students. Chapter 2 Reading instructions Ł 2.1 Introduction: Not very important Ł 2.2 Uncertainty and probability: Read ... Explorative statistics aims to find ineresting results that Can be used to formulate new objectives/hypothesis for further investigation in future studies. The application of statistics is broad indeed and includes business, marketing, economics, agriculture, Need homework and test-taking help in Statistics? Jerome, LAURASCHULTZ, Spring, Unknown, KATHLEENGREEN, ALLEN, Allen,GeraldS., Atkins,JamesM., Birmingham,ThomasH., masullo, Marsh, Cundiff,KathyL., JudithYoung, Green,KathleenR., Davis,ScottA., Mikhail, Michel, Wineberg, Jonathan, Krulewich, Kathleen Green, KimberlyLaw, Stewart David, wayne,steuer, RichardStevens, Speer,StuartNelson, Mboumi, Mr. Thomas Taylor, Hasina Nelson, Myrick, Charles , Gatlin, smith c, Aldo Maldonado, Tim Casey, MA 211 - Calculus and Analytic Geometry II, MA 213 - Calculus and Analytic Geometry IV. (49 Documents), MA 213 - Calculus and Analytic Geometry IV Probability – Basic concepts-trial- event-equally likely- mutually exclusive – independent event, additive and multiplicative laws. Homework Help in Statistics from CliffsNotes! Atmiya Institute of Technology & Science – General Department Page 1 B.E. Measures of dispersion – Range, Variance -Standard deviation – co-efficient of variation – computation of the above statistics for raw and grouped data. We will start our discussion with basic concepts of statistics followed by some examples that will help you get a better understanding of the concept. Collection of data on a whole population is called a census. I want to discuss some very fundamental terms/concepts related to probability and statistics that often come across any literature related to Machine Learning and AI. The line in the middle is the median value of the data. You can change your ad preferences anytime. Looks like you’ve clipped this slide to already. It describes the different types of variables, scales of measurement, and modeling types with which these variables are analyzed . Though the technical details differ from situation to situation, all hypothesis tests use the same core set of terms and concepts. Explain how to determine which multiplication formula to use to compute probability. Chapter 2 Reading instructions Ł 2.1 Introduction: Not very important Ł 2.2 Uncertainty and probability: Read ... Explorative statistics aims to find ineresting results that Can be used to formulate new objectives/hypothesis for further investigation in future studies. You should not confuse this concept with the population of a city for example. … A set containing all the numbers is called a population. Introduction. Access study documents, get answers to your study questions, and connect with real tutors for MA 120 : Basic Concepts of Statistics at Park University. Sem-IV Sub: NUMERICAL AND STATISTICAL METHODS FOR COMPUTER ENGINEERING (2140706) Topic: Basic Concepts of Statistics Introduction The word “Statistics” appears to have been derived from the Latin word Status or the Italian word Statista, both … The chapter reviews the differences between nonexperimental and experimental research and the differences between descriptive and inferential analyses. Basic Probability 1.1 Basic De nitions Trials? Set, population and sample Basic Concept Note. The Prerequisites Checklist page on the Department of Statistics website lists a number of courses that require a foundation of basic statistical concepts as a prerequisite. Outcome: Whatever is the result of the experiment is known as the outcome. Introduction to basic statistical concepts, such as descriptive statistics, hypothesis testing, how to enter data in to statistical software and how to use easy R interface. Welcome. throwing two dice, dealing cards, at poker, measuring heights of people, recording proton-proton collisions) Outcome: a single result from a measurement (e.g. The first quartile is essentially the 25th percentile; i.e 25% of the points in the data fall below that value. Business Statistics Summary Notes Chapter 1. Sem-IV Statistical analysis of quantitative data … Population are all the elements to which we are going to make a study, regardless of what it is, whether they are pieces of a factory, animals, data of any type… The distinction between a population together with its parameters and a sample together with its statistics is a fundamental concept in inferential statistics. 5 Determine the measurement level for each variable. For right now, you are responsible for the material in Chapter 3.2. Data collection - Case Study Method. Descriptive Statistics Sample data may be summarized graphically or with summary statistics. Basic Statistical Concepts Statistics plays a central role in research in the social sciences, pure sciences and medicine. Statistics is a study of data: describing properties of data (descriptive statistics) and drawing conclusions about a population based on information in a sample (inferential statistics). Sub: NUMERICAL AND STATISTICAL METHODS FOR COMPUTER ENGINEERING When data are obtained by counting and only whole numbers are possible, the data are called Exponential distribution. Data are obtained largely by two methods Descriptive Statistics Sample data may be summarized graphically or with summary statistics. Hypothesis testing is a statistical technique that is used in a variety of situations. If C is already observed i.e. In our example, the population is the set of all students, that is, the 200 students. education, psychology, sociology, anthropology and biology in addition to our special interest A set is a group of data and an individual value within the set is called a member of the set. Review of Basic Statistical Concepts. All of the graduate courses in the Master of Applied Statistics program heavily rely on these concepts and procedures. 2 Published by : ... economics, political or social science, the basic problem is to collect facts and figures relating to a particular phenomenon expressed in terms of quantity or numbers. A basic box plot. A Basic Review of Statistics Definitions and Concepts . 2- drawing of inferences about a body of data when only a part of the data is observed. statistics.  Introduction 1 Basic ANOVA concepts 1.1 The Setting Generally, we are considering a quantitative response variable as it relates to one or more explanatory variables, usually categorical. The Least Squares Approach 4. CHAPTER 1: Basic Concepts of Regression Analysis Prof. Alan Wan 1/42. Statistics for Research Projects Chapter 1 We’ll start with a motivating example of how powerful statistics can be when they’re used properly, and then dive into de nitions of basic statistical concepts, exploratory analysis methods, and an overview of some commonly used probability distributions. Population- A population is a collection of objects (often called units or subjects) of interest. of the year, and Class 10 Mathematics Notes - Chapter 6 - Basic Statistics - Exercise 6.3. It would support the arguments by providing the relevant data and how knowledge, education can be of great help to the girls of the modern age. Sample statistics include the . 11 Use of statistics in dental sciences Assess the state of oral health in community Indicate basic factors underlying state of oral health Determine success or failure of specific oral health care programmes or to evaluate the programme action Promote health legislation and in creating administrative standards for oral health 12. Set of all possible elementary outcomes of a trial.? Some members selected at random from a Population: The universe of event numbers under study. Data may relate to an activity of our interest, a phenomenon, or a problem situation under study. mean, The basic situation is an experiment whose outcome is unknown before it takes place e.g., a) coin tossing, b)throwingadie,c)choosingatrandomanumberfromN,d)choosingatrandoma number from (0,1). We should mention that Pr(A)=0does not necessarily imply that A= ∅. population are called a sample. Statistics is the area of study dealing with the collection, presentation, analysis of data as well as drawing of meaningful conclusions from the data. Sample- A sample is a subset of the units in a population. Basic statistics by Neeraj Bhandari ( Surkhet.Nepal ), Arithmetic Mean, Geometric Mean, Harmonic Mean, No public clipboards found for this slide, Basic Concepts of Statistics - Lecture Notes, Student at vishwakaram institute of technolgy ,pune. Statistics is a mathematical science concerned with the collection, presentation, analysis, interpretation or explanation of data. These articles can help you understand the advance math concept Data Patterns. implies that probabilities must follow a few basic rules: Pr(A) ≥ 0 Pr(∅)=0 Pr(Ω)=1 (the relative frequency of all Ωis obviously 1). ) must satisfy the following basic properties : • 0 ≤ P(E) ≤ 1 , • P(S) = 1 , ... Concepts that arise include permutations and combinations. Some basic terms related to probability: Experiment: Whatever we do, is called experiment. (a) By counting - for example, the number of days on which rain falls in a month for each month throwing two dice, dealing cards, at poker, measuring heights of people, recording proton-proton collisions) Outcome: a single result from a measurement (e.g. B.E. Statistical data are the basic raw material of statistics. You can see why choosing a random sample is a critical part of the process of statistics. Population: The universe of event numbers under study. F distribution. A Basic Concept Note is likely to highlight an important issue, for example, the importance of education for girls. Acquaint yourself with notation and underlying logic.

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